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润滑油基础油
发布者:admin 发布时间:2015-05-15 浏览量:admin

润滑油基础油

Lube base oil 

1、          蒸馏

 1, distillation

首先将原有经过常压蒸馏,从石油中分离出气体燃料、汽油、柴油和煤油。参与的釜残油可用作润滑油原料。 

First, after the original atmospheric distillation to separate the gaseous fuel, gasoline, diesel and kerosene from petroleum. Kettle residual oil can be used as lubricant stock participation.

 

2、          减压蒸馏

 2, vacuum distillation

把常压得到的釜残油(重油),再采用减压蒸馏的方法进一步加工,进行一级减压蒸馏,从减压塔最高侧线出来的馏出油称为减一线,可作为变压器油油料;次高侧线出来的馏出油称作减二线,依次为减三线、减四线;塔底残渣油可作有锅炉燃料油。

 The resulting pressure vessel residual oil (heavy oil), and then using vacuum distillation method further processing, carried out a vacuum distillation, vacuum tower from the side line up out distillates called by the front line, as oil transformer oil ; high-siding out of distillate called by second, followed by minus three lines, minus four lines; the bottom of the residual oil can be used as boiler fuel.

3、          精制

 3, refined

减压蒸馏得到的润滑油馏出物仅仅是半成品,需要进一步加工才能得到相应的润滑油料。这些以减压馏出物为原料的润滑油通称为馏份润滑油料。 从渣油中得到的润滑油通称为残渣润滑油料。

Vacuum distillation of lubricating oil distillate is only semi-finished products, the need for further processing to give the corresponding lube stock. Those with reduced pressure distillate oil as raw material known as lubricating oil fractions. Lubricating oil obtained from residual material known as residual lube.

 

不管是馏份润滑油料或残渣润滑油料,其中都含有许多必须除去的有害物质,所以要进一步精制。目前,作为基础油的精制方法,按照生产工艺的特点可分为两大类:一类是老三套,即溶剂精制、溶剂脱蜡、白土补充精制三种;另一类是新发展起来的加氢工艺。

 Whether or residual lube distillate lubricating oil stock material, which contain many harmful substances which must be removed, so be further refined. Now, as the base oil refining method, in accordance with the characteristics of the production process can be divided into two categories: one is the old three, namely solvent refining, solvent dewaxing, clay three additional purification; the other is the newly developed hydrogenation process.

 

1 溶剂精制:是利用一种溶剂将润滑油料中含氧、氮、硫化物等非理想组分溶解分离,保留理想组分。

1. Solvent refining: is the use of a non-ideal component solvent lubricating oil feed oxygen, nitrogen, dissolved sulfide separation, retention ideal components. 

 

2 溶剂脱沥青:用减压渣油生产残渣润滑油料,因残渣润滑油料中含有大量沥青质,所以在脱蜡、精制之前应先把它除去。脱除沥青质的油叫做脱沥青油。

2. Solvent deasphalting: lubricating oil residue with vacuum residue feed production, because residual lube feedstock contains large amounts of asphaltenes, so it should be removed first before dewaxing, refining. Removal of asphaltenes in the oil, called deasphalted oil.

 

3。脱蜡:为使润滑油在低温条件下保持良好的流动性,必须将其中易凝固的蜡除去,这一工艺叫脱蜡。

3. Dewaxing: wax is removed as the lubricant to maintain good fluidity at low temperatures, it must be among tend to solidify, this process called dewaxing.

 

4。白土精制:润滑油原料经过溶剂精制、脱蜡等工艺处理后,其质量已基本上达到要求,但所得的油品还含有少量没有分离掉的溶剂,以及因回收溶剂被加热生产的缩合物,胶质等。为去掉杂质,进一步改善润滑油的颜色、提高安定性、降低残炭,需要白土补充精制。

4. Clay refining: After solvent refined lubricating oil stocks, dewaxing process, its quality has basically reached the requirements, but the resulting oil also contain small amounts of solvent is not separated off, and the condensate recovered solvent is heated because of production, gum and the like. To remove impurities, and further improve the lubricating oil colors, increase stability, reduce the residual carbon, clay need additional purification.

 

 5。润滑油加氢:润滑油原料与氢气发生反应,籍以除去硫、氧、氮等有害元素 保留润滑油理想组分或将非理想组分转化为理想组分,从而使润滑油的质量提高。目前用于润滑油的加氢过程分为加氢补充精制、加氢处理和加氢降凝三种。我国大都督采用加氢补充精制,即在溶剂脱沥青、溶剂精制、溶剂脱蜡的基础上,以加氢精制取代白土补充精制。

 

  5. Hydrogenation Lubricants: Lubricant feed react with hydrogen, membership to remove sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and other harmful elements ideal lubricant component or components into an ideal non-ideal components remain, thereby improving the quality of lubricating oil. The hydrogenation process currently used in lubricating oil into hydrofinishing, hydrotreating and pour three. Viceroy of use hydrofinishing, namely in a solvent deasphalting, solvent refining, solvent dewaxing basis, taking hydrotreating replace clay additional purification.

 

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